Scientific articles

The tremoflo has been used in multiple scientific studies across the world. Learn more about its performance here.

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Airwave Oscillometry in the diagnosis and monitoring of respiratory disease (webinar)
Learn how Airwave Oscillometry can help your clinical practice in the assessment of respiratory disease with Brian Lipworth, MD and clinical professor at the University of Dundee.
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Non-invasive measure of mechanics & conventional respiratory in animals by Airwave Oscillometry
An Airwave Oscillometry system was used to concomitantly assess Rrs and conventional respiratory parameters before and after intravenous treatment with a bronchoactive agent.
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Within-breath resistance & reactance in two forced oscillation technique devices
Comparision of total, inspiratory and expiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) between two commercial forced oscillation technique (FOT) devices.
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Oscillometry changes with body position and correlates with TLC and lung density
Study aiming to determine body position effect on oscillometry and if pulmonary function test or lung density would predict any changes on COPD and heathy subjects.
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Oscillometry system comparison in phantoms and humans
Study comparing an Impulse Oscillometry System (IOS; CareFusion) and an Airwave Oscillometry System (tremoFlo; THORASYS) in phantoms & humans.
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Statistical model to estimate lung density utilizing oscillometry, biometrics, PROs & PFT
A reasonable estimate of lung density, and hence emphysema, is possible by means of non-radiologic parameters.
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Assessing response to methacholine challenges using a new forced oscillation device
Study comparing FEV1 vs FOT responses to a methacholine challenge using a commercial FOT device, and propose potential cut-points that define a positive response.
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Patient Reported Outcomes Correlate Better with Intra-Breath than with Whole-Breath FOT Parameters
Validation of these findings in larger cohorts would support the usefulness of IB FOT parameters for the evaluation of COPD.
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Airway smooth muscle tone increases airway responsiveness in healthy young adults
Study assessing the effect of tone on airway responsiveness in humans. All subjects were healthy nonasthmatics without a history of respiratory disease.
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Frequency dependence of resistance using patient-specific 3D physical model & a computational model
Study evaluating the central airway contribution to frequency dependence of resistance, measured with Impulse Oscillometry and Sinusoidal Forced Oscillations.
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Assessment of Airway Distensibility by the Forced Oscillation Technique
Study investigating the reproducibility of airway distensibility measured by FOT & to assessing whether the method could be simplified to increase feasibility.
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Comparison of two methods of determining lung de-recruitment, using the forced oscillation technique
This study aims to determine if a slow vital capacity maneuver can be used instead of this deflation maneuver and compare it to existing more complex techniques.
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Acute Effects of Electronic Cigarette Inhalation on the Vasculature and the Conducting Airways
The present study examines the acute effects of e-cigarette aerosol inhalation, with and without nicotine, on vascular and pulmonary function in healthy volunteers.
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Comparison of Forced and Impulse Oscillometry Measurements
We compared two commercially available FOT devices: Impulse Oscillometry System and TremoFlo FOT in clinical adult population of healthy controls, asymptomatic smokers and individuals with asthma.
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Comparison of oscillometry devices using active mechanical test loads
There are concerns about the comparability betwen oscillometry devices. This study compares the performances of oscillometers in the measurement of mechanical test loads.
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Towards Prepared mums for a healthy start, an intervention for women with overweight & a child wish
A preconception lifestyle intervention might be more effective to reduce perinatal complications.This study aims to evaluate the effect of a lifestyle intervention on lifestyle behaviour change.
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Differences in forced oscillation between mouthpiece and mask
Study measuring resistance at 5Hz (R5), frequency dependence of resistance (R5-20) and the Reactance area (Ax) in adults breathing through a mouthpiece or mask.
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Tracking Respiratory Mechanics With Oscillometry: Introduction of Time-Varying Error
We introduce the error arising from respiratory time variation, termed the time-varying error & demonstrate how TVE increases with increasing breathing rate independent of breathing noise amplitude.
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Long‐term morbidity of respiratory viral infections during chemotherapy in children with leukaemia
Study evaluating the long‐term pulmonary morbidity of respiratory viral infections during chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia using spirometry, plethysmography and oscillometry.
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Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Identified Using the Forced Oscillation Technique
Airway resistance and reactance at 5 Hz and VE were measured prior to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) before & up to 20 min after a standard EC in people with asthma & healthy controls.
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Early detection of changes in lung mechanics with oscillometry following bariatric surgery
[French only] Étude visant à vérifier si des modifications précoces de la mécanique pulmonaire consécutives à la perte de poids sont détectables par l’oscillométrie.
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Discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro comparisons of forced oscillation devices
Subjects performed three measurements during tidal breathing on the four devices in random order. Total, inspiratory and expiratory Rrs and Xrs were calculated and compared.
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Improvement in lung mechanics with bariatric surgery affects bronchodilator responsiveness & sleep quality
The study aims to quantify the degree of weight loss-induced improvements in respiratory system mechanics in both upright and supine positions, using spirometry, plethysmography, and oscillometry.
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Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing 2017 end of year summary: respiration
This paper reviews 32 papers or commentaries published in Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing in 2016, within the field of respiration.
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Small airways effects of exposure to wood smoke
The aim of this study was to investigate whether controlled exposure to wood smoke generated from incomplete soot-rich combustion would increase small airway resistance and reactance.
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Airway Oscillometry Detects Spirometric-Silent Episodes of Acute Cellular Rejection
Airway oscillometry is a lung function test that detects peripheral airway inhomogeneity with greater sensitivity than spirometry. What is the role of oscillometry in patient monitoring post-transplan
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The Impact of Early-Life Exposures to Highly Variable Environmental Factors on Foetal & Child Health
We developed a couple-child cohort relying on deep phenotyping and extended personal exposure assessment aiming to better characterize the effects of components of the exposome.
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Respiratory function in healthy Emirati children using forced oscillations
Lung function using FOT was assessed in healthy Emirati children aged 4‐12 years. Using a validated questionnaires general medical and respiratory histories were obtained.
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Early life exposure to coal mine fire smoke emissions and altered lung function in young children
Study on respiratory risks following exposure to short periods of poor air quality in infants. Results: it could be associated with long‐term impairment of lung reactance.
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Recent Diagnosis Techniques in Pediatric Asthma: Impulse Oscillometry in Preschool Asthma
Objective measures of lung function are important in the diagnosis and management of asthma, yet most preschoolers cannot perform spirometry.
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Non-invasive forced oscillometry to quantify respiratory mechanics in term neonates
FOT in neonates distinguishes normal control infants from those with TTN on postnatal day 1. Oscillometry is a non-invasive, longitudinal technique to assess lung mechanics in newborns.
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Discordant and concordant Forced Oscillation Technique / spirometry phenotypes in a COPD population
Forced Oscillation Technique staged COPD correlates better with patient reported outcomes than spirometry. Our data suggests that up to 19% of COPD subjects may be misclassified using spirometry.
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Bronchodilator responses in respiratory impedance, hyperinflation and gas trapping in COPD
The relationships between changes in resistance and reactance, and changes in hyperinflation and gas trapping, following long-acting bronchodilator (LA-BD) have not been studied yet.
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What can we learn about COPD from impulse oscillometry?
Impulse oscillometry (IOS) is the most commonly used forced oscillation technique, and relatively little is known about its application in COPD.
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Contribution and distribution of emphysema & small airways disease in COPD described by CT analysis
This study aims to compare two CT quantitative analysis techniques, disease probability measure and parametric response mapping, and assess their relationship with specific physiological measures.
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Oscillometry in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: impulse oscillometry & tremoflo devices
Comparison of a new respiratory oscillometry instrument, the tremoflo, with Impulse Oscillometry (IOS) on patients with diagnosis of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) and healthy subjects.
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Duration impacts variability measured by the forced oscillation in healthy, asthma & COPD subjects
FOT measurements are useful for measuring lung function of people who have difficulty performing spirometry, since it requires tidal breathing without need for any forced manoeuvres.
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Effects of nicotine/flavor-free e-cigarette use on lung functions in healthy & asthmatic individuals
Electronic cigarette is available everywhere and is aggressively marketed as a safe way to stop smoking. Reality is that we do not know the consequences of vaping on pulmonary health.
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Effect of tralokinumab on eosinophilic airway inflammation in uncontrolled moderate-to-severe asthma
Researchers aimed to evaluate whether tralokinumab would have an effect on airway eosinophilic infiltration, blood and sputum eosinophil concentrations, eosinophil activation, and airway remodelling.
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Oscillometry and pulmonary MRI measurements of ventilation heterogeneity in obstructive lung disease
In 100 patients ventilation heterogeneity and respiratory system impedance were correlated and both were independently related to quality of life scores and asthma control.
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Sputum Eosinophilia and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Ventilation Heterogeneity in Severe Asthma
The manucript investigates the contribution of eosinophilic bronchitis and smooth muscle dysfunction to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ventilation heterogeneity in patients with severe asthma.
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Nasopharyngeal isolates and their clinical impact on young children with asthma: a pilot study
Researchers investigated the nasopharyngeal colonization in children with asthma to determine the prevalence of pathogens and their contribution to respiratory symptoms and airway resistance.
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Reduced lung elastic recoil and fixed airflow obstruction in asthma
Fixed airflow obstruction (FAO) in asthma occurs despite optimal inhaled treatment and no smoking history, and remains a significant problem, particularly with increasing age and duration of asthma.
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Home-based Forced Oscillation Technique Day-to-Day Variability in Pediatric Asthma
Presentation of illustrative cases highlighting the potential of home-based FOT daily measurements to better characterize asthma exacerbations and detect changes in asthma control.
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P17 Dietary nitrate supplementation: Implications for the assessment of airway health in athletes
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute dietary nitrate supplementation on FeNO and resting pulmonary function parameters.
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IOS vs AOS: Comparative Bias in Respiratory Impedance Measurements
The forced oscillation technique (FOT) measures respiratory impedance during normal tidal breathing. This study compares IOS & AOS devices in patients with asthma & COPD.
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Oscillometry and pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging in asthma and COPD
Study of the relationships between parameters measurements in ex-smokers and non-smokers with chronic‐obstructive‐pulmonary‐disease (COPD) or asthma
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Interdevice agreement in respiratory resistance values by oscillometry in asthmatic children
Spirometry remains the gold standard for the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with asthma. However, oscillometry, an effort-independent technique, has been shown to be responsive to change.
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Measuring the effects of bronchial thermoplasty (BT) using oscillometry (AOS)
Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is helping patients with severe asthma, but no improvement captured by spirometry. This study evaluates the response to BT using oscillometry.
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Bronchodilator Response Assessed by the Forced Oscillation Technique Identifies Poor Asthma Control
The manuscripts presents the comparison of BDR cutoffs by using different methods which are FOT and spirometry.
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Airwave oscillometry and patient-reported outcomes in persistent asthma
Airwave oscillometry measurements strongly correlate with IOS and quantify the degree of small airways dysfunction (SAD) [...]
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The effect of the extrafine formulation of BDP/FF inhaler on Mexican asthmatic patients
This retrospective analysis reinforces the concept of maintenance treatment focused on inflammation background of the disease and the need of bronchodilator effect also in Mexican population.
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Early detection of exacerbation in patients with respiratory diseases including COVID-19
By detecting small airway dysfunction before it becomes symptomatically apparent, Oscillometry might be able to separate COVID-19 patients whose peripheral lungs are affected.
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Beyond spirometry
For many decades, requiring patients to make forced, maximal exhalations to measure their expiratory volumes and flows, has been the standard of care for pulmonary function testing (PFT). However, des
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Small Airways Dysfunction in Asthma: Evaluation and Management
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Reference equations for respiratory system resistance and reactance in adults
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Respiratory impedance and bronchodilator responsiveness in healthy children aged 2-13 years
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Transient reference values for impulse oscillometry for children aged 3–18 years
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Respiratory impedance in healthy subjects: baseline values and bronchodilator response
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Lung function monitoring in the era of respiratory pandemics

by Lennart K.A. Lundblad and Chung-Wai Chow

“We suggest that [Oscillometry] could be an alternative to spirometry while minimizing exhalation aerosol generation.”

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